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Laser cutting of steel plate a number of process issues

Promulgator: :admin   Send date: :2012-05-28 18:42 Visitor: :

Laser cutting machine is the advanced equipment for processing sheet metal parts, a substantial increase in labor productivity, with a high accuracy of machining parts, short processing cycle, as well as traditional stamping dies processing without replacement of any complexity can be processed parts, which is increasingly more switching equipment manufacturing enterprises.
Laser cutting is focusing mirror of the laser beam focus in the surface material melting, while for the laser beam compressed gas to blow away the molten material, and the laser beam and material for relative movement along a certain trajectory, and thus a certain The shape of the kerf. The rapid development of laser cutting technology, the increasingly widespread application is an advanced processing methods, especially suitable for cutting steel plate.
Laser cutting technology than the other obvious advantages of the method is:
(1) cutting of good quality and incision narrow (generally 0.1 ~ 0.5mm), high precision (generally hole center distance error of 0.1 ~ 0.4mm outline size of the error of 0.1 ~ 0.5mm), the cut surface roughness (12.5 ~~ 25 μm), cut the seam generally do not need to re-processing can be welded.
(2) cutting speed, for example, using a 2kW laser power 8mm thick steel cutting speed 1.6m/min; 2mm thick stainless steel cutting speed 3.5m/min, small heat affected zone, minimal distortion.
(3) Clean, safe, pollution-free.
(4) metal sheet metal should not be made molds from the technical and economic point of view, especially the outline of complex shape, and small quantities, low carbon steel of the general thickness of less than 12mm, less than 6mm thick stainless steel, in order to save the cost of manufacturing molds cycle.
Cutting of the common problems and treatment
(1) cutting the perforation technology
Any kind of hot-cutting technology, can start from the edge of the board, except for a few, generally must be on board to wear a small hole. The composite laser stamping machine before first use the punch out of a hole, and then laser cut from the hole. Two perforated stamping device laser cutting machine:
Blasting perforation - material after continuous laser irradiation in the center to form a pit, and then remove the molten material by the oxygen flow with the laser beam quickly to form a hole. General hole size and plate thickness blasting perforation average diameter of half the plate thickness, the thick plate blasting perforation aperture, and not round, not in the higher processing precision parts can only be used in the waste. In addition, due to perforation of the oxygen pressure and cutting large splash.
Pulse perforation - a high peak power pulsed laser to make a small amount of material melting or vaporization, commonly used in air or nitrogen as the assist gas in order to reduce due to the exothermic oxidation so that the hole extended, the oxygen pressure in the gas pressure compared with cutting. Each laser pulse produced only a small jet of particles, the gradual deepening of the slab perforation takes a few seconds. Once the perforation is complete, the auxiliary gas immediately replaced by oxygen cutting. This smaller hole diameter, perforation quality is better than blasting perforation. To this end, the laser used should not only has a high output power; more important is the temporal and spatial characteristics of the beam, it is generally transverse flow CO2 lasers can not meet the requirements of laser cutting. In addition, pulse perforation must have more reliable pneumatic control system, in order to achieve the type of gas, the gas pressure switch and perforation time control.
By pulsed perforated, in order to obtain high-quality cuts from the workpiece stationary pulse perforation to the workpiece constant speed continuous cutting a transitional technology should attach importance to. The theory can usually change the acceleration section of the cutting conditions, such as focal length, nozzle position and gas pressure, but in fact such a short time is unlikely to change the above conditions. More realistic way to change the laser average power in industrial production, the specific method is to change the pulse width; change the pulse frequency; changing the pulse width and frequency. The actual results show that three kinds of the best.
2 deformation analysis of cutting holes (diameter and thickness)
This is because the machine (only for high-power laser cutting machine) in the processing of small holes instead of taking blasting perforation way, but pulse perforation (soft puncture), which makes the laser energy is too concentrated in a small region, non-processing areas burnt, resulting in deformation of the hole affect the processing quality. When we pulse perforation (soft puncture) conversion to blasting perforated (ordinary puncture) in the processing procedures will be addressed. For smaller power laser cutting machine, by contrast, pulse perforation holes that the processing should be to achieve a better surface finish.
(3) Laser cutting of low carbon steel workpiece burrs solution
Analysis come to the following reasons based on CO2 laser cutting and design principles, resulting in workpiece burr the main reason: the upper and lower positions of the laser focus is not correct, need to do the focal position of the test, according to the focus offset adjustment; laser output power is not enough, need to check the laser generator is working properly, if normal, the observation is correct, the output value of the laser control buttons to be adjusted; cutting the line speed is too slow, you need to increase the line speed in the operating control; cutting the purity of the gas is not enough, need to provide high-quality cutting gas; laser focus offset, you need to do the focal position of the test, according to the focus offset adjustment; instability of the machine running time is too long, need to shut down restart.
4 laser cutting of stainless steel and aluminum-zinc plate, the workpiece glitch analysis
Especially when the appearance of the above, the first consideration when cutting low-carbon steel burr factors, but not simply speed up the cutting speed, because the rate of increase can sometimes be a sheet metal cutting, do not wear such circumstances apply in the processing of aluminum and zinc panels . Then should consider other factors of the machine to be addressed, such as whether to replace the nozzle, the instability of rail movement.
Laser is not completely cut through the analysis of the state
Analysis can be found in the following scenarios is to produce processing unstable: the selection and processing of the laser head and nozzle plate thickness does not match; laser cutting line too fast, need operational control to reduce the line speed; In addition, also require special attention is the need to replace the 7.5 "focal length of the laser lens in the L3030 laser cutting machine to cut carbon steel plate more than 5mm.
6. The solution of non-normal spark cutting low carbon steel
This situation will affect the quality of finish machining of parts of the cutting section. Other parameters are normal circumstances, should consider the following situation: loss of the laser head the nozzle NOZZEL the timely replacement of the nozzle. No new nozzle replacement, should increase the cutting pressure of working gas; nozzle connected to the laser head at the thread loose. Should be immediately suspended cutting, check the laser head connection status, Reattach the thread.
7 laser cutting, puncture point selection
Laser cutting, laser beam working principle is: the processing of materials by continuous laser irradiation to form a pit in the center to form a hole, and then by the laser beam air will soon be melting the material removal . This hole, this hole is similar to the line cutting the thread hole, the laser beam machining start point for contour cutting, usually flying optics laser beam alignment direction and the parts to be processed cutting perpendicular to the contour tangent direction.
Therefore, when the laser beam began to penetrate the steel plate to enter this period of time the part contour cutting, the cutting speed vector direction will be a big change, a 90 ° rotation of vector direction, perpendicular to the cutting contour tangent direction into the tangent of the cutting contour coincide with the contour tangent angle of 0 °. Will shed a rough cut surface in the cutting section of the material being processed, which is mainly in a short period of time, the laser beam in the moving direction of the vector is changing rapidly Centre. Therefore, when using laser cutting parts need to be aware of the situation in this regard. General, in the design of parts, cutting fracture roughness on the surface, you can not do manual processing in the laser cutting programming and control software automatically generates the puncture site; However, when the design of the processing parts cut section with higher roughness requirements, it is necessary to notice this issue, and usually need to do to manually adjust the start position of the laser beam in the compilation of the laser cutting process, ie, artificial control of the puncture points. Need to be a reasonable position, originally produced by the laser procedure the puncture point to the need to achieve the surface accuracy of the machined part.
Figure 1
As shown above, if this precision parts on the arc in the preparation of the laser cutting process, cutting start point (puncture site) should be set in the A and C, can not be set in B and D. If this part is only the edge of a straight line accuracy is required, that in the preparation of the laser cutting process, cutting start point should be set in B and D can not be set in the A and C.
Figure 2
Similarly, Figure 2, if the exterior design of this part of arc precision in the preparation of the laser cutting process, cutting start point (puncture site) can only be set in the D, if this part only on a straight line edge accuracy is required, that the preparation of the laser cutting process, cutting start point (puncture site) you can select any point in addition to the point D outside.
Laser cutting of sheet metal is a state-of-the-art manufacturing and processing technologies, not only can greatly reduce the development cycle, mold manufacturing costs, and improve the quality and production efficiency, and help to improve the manufacturing industry, technology and equipment innovation. Practical applications, we need to continue to accumulate experience, understanding and practice, so that this new technology to play its due contribution to improve our



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